Inspection and testing required for a project should be indicated in the project quality plan. On a construction site, inspection and testing is carried out at three stages:
Materials, components and appliances received on site are subject to receiving inspection and/or testing. The amount and nature of checking required vary with the degree of control exercised at the supplier’s premises and the recorded evidence of conformance. Where an incoming item is released for urgent use prior to verification, the location where it is used or installed should be recorded.
During construction, inspection and testing should be carried out progressively to ensure that any defective work is not built upon or covered over. The requirements for in-process inspection and testing are usually documented in the inspection and test plans (ITPs) which form part of the quality plan. An ITP lists in sequence the activities involved in a process, specifies the checks or tests to be performed and the acceptance criteria, indicates the hold points when verification of quality is a prerequisite to continuation of work, and identifies the authority of approval at each hold point. There are many construction and installation processes for which ITPs have to be prepared. Some examples are excavation and earthwork, piling, concreting (including precasting), structural steelwork, brickwork and blockwork, roofing and cladding, plumbing and drainage, installation of mechanical and electrical services.
An inspection plan for submittal to the owner might reasonably be expected to cover all or some of the following items:
The Inspection and Test Plan (ITP) is a quality assurance tool commonly used throughout the construction industry. An effective ITP may also aid communications, assist to establish expectations and promote collaborative working in the project team.
An Inspection & Test Plan (ITP) is a document which describes the plan for managing the quality control and assurance of a particular element of the construction works providing information on the requirements, overview of the method(s) to be used, responsibilities of relevant parties, and documentary evidence to be provided to verify compliance.
ITP is a document detailing a systematic approach to testing a system or product (ex. Material, Component, machine, package etc..) through visual inspection, dimensional measurement, Non Destructive Testing, functionality test, factory acceptance test, with the participation of all involved parties. It is used to validate the inspection and test results against design and work specification according to the sequence of operations which are witnessed and verified by the client/owner’s representative hand in hand with the fabricator/constructor.
It is the program of inspection, testing of materials, and survey that shall be prepared and submitted by the contractor to the Client or his Representative for approval before usage and application to the site.
Preparation, Review, Approval and Implementation:
Any activity at any stage of the construction that contributes to quality assurance can be specified within the ITP. For example, an ITP may include an item which specifies that only competent persons are to undertake works and therefore would also summarize how this will be checked (i.e. ‘inspected’) prior to works commencing such as checking and recording qualifications.
Thus, the term ‘inspection’ may not only be a reference to the physical construction works but could be a document, an item of equipment used for the works, a qualification etc. which should be inspected.
Additionally, it is very important that an ITP details the evidence which will be provided to demonstrate the ‘inspection’ or check has been satisfactorily completed and where it will be filed for future reference or collected for inclusion in the building documentation handed over at the end of the project.
In summary, the ITP provides a summary of the what, how, why, when, and who for quality of an element of the works, ex.:
There are no standard ‘codes’ and organizations usually develop their own preferred method. However, there are some standard accepted types of inspection and test. The following are the most common categories of inspection / test activity. Suggested abbreviations are included in brackets: